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Jesus is Better than King David: A Study of the Davidic Covenant

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OT Context of the Davidic Covenant

This is part of a half day long teaching series conducted with my students, based on the redemptive historical narrative of the old testament, paying attention to the development of the royal seed promises of God, culminating on King Jesus as the exalted Messiah-Lord, resulting on worldwide blessing and judgement.

ከዳዊት ጋር የተደረገው ኪዳን (1 Samuel 16-2 Samuel 24)

  • Relation to Gen. 3:15
  • የዳዊት ዘር ለዘላለም ጸንቶ ይኖራል። Ps. 89:35-37
  • ዳዊና ልጆቹ ጠላትን ከእግራቸው ሥር በአፈር ላይ ረግጠው የገዛሉ: Ps. 89:10,23; 2 Sam. 22:37-44
  • የዳዊት ጠላቶች ከእግሩ ሥር ወድቀው አፈር ይልሳሉ: Ps. 72:9
  • በሰው እግር ሥር ይገዙዘንድ ታልፈው የተሰጡት (Ps. 8:6) and የዳዊት ልጅና ጌታ ሆኖ የተሾመው እግር ሥር… (Ps. 110:1).

ዳዊት እንደ እንደ አዲሱ አብርሃምና አዳም

  • ዳዊት የአብርሃምን ተስፋ ይፈጽማል: 2 Sam. 7:8-17; Ezek. 37:24-28; Ps.72:8-11, 17; cf. Ps. 2:8 (የምድር ሁሉ በረከት)Notice in Ps. 2:8; 72:8 ርስቱ አሁን ዓለምን በሙሉ መሆኑን ተመልከት.
  • ዘላለማዊ ንግሥና ነው (2 Sam. 7:13, 16; Ps. 89:3-4, 28-37; 132:11-12)
  • ሆኖም መታዘዝ ገንዘቡ ነው (2 Sam. 7:14-15)
  • ዳዊት ግን ጥሪውን አልፈጸመም (2 Sam. 11ff)/a son of Adam
  • እንደ ገና አዲስ ዳዊት ይነሳል: Hos. 3:5; Mic. 5:2-4; Isa. 9:1ff; 11:1ff; 55:3;Jer. 23:5-6; 30:9; 33:15ff; Ezek. 34:23-24; 37:24-25; Zech. 9:9

Corruption of kingship

  • Begins with Solomon (2 Kings 1-11)
  • Paradise around the corner
  • Solomon’s wisdom as king
  • “Judah and Israel were as many as the sand by the sea. They ateand drank and were happy” (1 Kings 4:20)
  • Unrivaled peace and prosperity in the realm
  • Building of temple
  • Nation unravels because of Solomon’s disobedience: like Adam in the garden!
  • Divided kingdom: Judah and Israel (1 Kings 12-2 Kings 25; cf. also 1-2Chron.)
  • Exile of Israel into Assyria 722 B.C.
  • Exile of Judah into Babylon 586 B.C

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Perspective of Prophets

  • Covenant lawsuit (Hos. 4:1-3; Isa. 1:2ff; 3:13-15; Mic. 5:1ff): Israel’s violation of covenant stipulations
  • Day of Lord: Judgment and salvation (Hos. 2:14-15, 19-20; 11:1ff; 14:4ff;Joel 1:15ff; 2:1ff; Amos 3:1-2; 5:18-20; 9:11ff; Zeph. 1:14ff; 3:9ff;Obadiah)
  • Exile because of sin (Nehemiah 9!). Summary of Israel’s history at end of canon.
  • Promise of new exodus: Isa. 11:11-15: 40:3-11; 42:16; 43:2, 5-7, 16-19,48:20ff; 49:6-11; 51:10 realized through death of the servant (Isa.52:13-53:12)
  • Promise of new covenant: Jer. 31:31-34; Ezek. 36:26-27; Isa. 32:15; 44:3
  • Promise of a new David: see below
  • Blessing for the whole world: Ps. 22:27; 47; 67; 72:17; 96; Isa. 2:1-4;19:16-25;45:22ff; 49:6f; 55:3-5; 66:18-19; Jonah; Amos 9:11ff; Joel2:28ff; Zeph. 3:9ff; etc.
  • Promise of new creation: Isa. 65:17; 66:22 etc.
  • Daniel: exile extended (Dan. 9:24-27)
  • Return from exile, and yet (Nehemiah, Ezra, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi)
  • Inaugurated exile: new covenant, new exodus, new creation, new
  • covenant, new David still not fulfilled totally

መሲሃዊ ተስፋ

  • መቀባት በብሉይ ኪዳን
  • የካህናት መቀባት: Exod. 28:41; 29:7; 30:30; 40:15
  • የነብያት መቀባት: 1 Kings 19:16
  • የነገሥታት መቀባት: 1 Sam. 9:15; 15:1; 16:3, 12; 1; Kings 1:34; Ps. 2:2; 89:20, 38, 51; ቂሮስ: Isa. 45:1
  • የዳዊት ኪዳንና የመሲሐዊ ተሥፋ
    • 2 Samuel 7:12–13 ዕድሜህምበተፈጸመጊዜከአባቶችህምጋርባንቀላፋህጊዜ፥ከወገብህየሚወጣውንዘርህንከአንተበኋላአስነሣለሁ፥መንግሥቱንምአጸናለሁ። 13 እርሱለስሜቤትይሠራል፤የመንግሥቱንምዙፋንለዘላለምአጸናለሁ።
    • Psalm 89:3 ከመረጥሁትጋርቃልኪዳኔንአደረግሁ፥ለባሪያዬምለዳዊትማልሁ።
    • Psalm 132:11 እግዚአብሔርለዳዊትበእውነትማለአይጸጸትምም፥እንዲህብሎ።ከሆድህፍሬበዙፋንህላይአስቀምጣለሁ።
    • Hosea 3:5 ከዚያምበኋላየእስራኤልልጆችተመልሰውአምላካቸውንእግዚአብሔርንናንጉሣቸውንዳዊትንይፈልጋሉ፤በኋለኛውምዘመንፈርተውወደእግዚአብሔርናወደበረከቱይመጣሉ።
    • Micah 5:2 አንቺምቤተልሔምኤፍራታሆይ፥አንቺበይሁዳአእላፋትመካከልትሆኚዘንድታናሽነሽ፤ከአንቺግንአወጣጡከቀድሞጀምሮከዘላለምየሆነ፥በእስራኤልምላይገዥየሚሆንይወጣልኛል።
    • Isaiah 9:6–7 ሕፃንተወልዶልናልና፥ወንድልጅምተሰጥቶናልና፤አለቅነትምበጫንቃውላይይሆናል፤ስሙምድንቅመካር፥ኃያልአምላክ፥የዘላለምአባት፥የሰላምአለቃተብሎይጠራል። 7 ከዛሬጀምሮእስከዘላለምድረስበፍርድናበጽድቅያጸናውናይደግፈውዘንድበዳዊትዙፋንናበመንግሥቱላይአለቅነቱይበዛል፥ለሰላሙምፍፃሜየለውም።የእግዚአብሔርቅንዓትይህንያደርጋል።
    • Isaiah 11:1 ከእሴይግንድበትርይወጣል፥ከሥሩምቍጥቋጥያፈራል።
    • Isaiah 11:10 በዚያምቀንእንዲህይሆናል፤ለአሕዛብምልክትሊሆንየቆመውንየእሴይንሥርአሕዛብይፈልጉታል፤ማረፊያውምየተከበረይሆናል።
    • Isaiah 55:3 ጆሮአችሁንአዘንብሉወደእኔምቅረቡ፤ስሙሰውነታችሁምበሕይወትትኖራለች፤የታመነችይቱንየዳዊትንምሕረት፥የዘላለምንቃልኪዳንከእናንተጋርአደርጋለሁ።
    • Jeremiah 23:5–6 እነሆ፥ለዳዊትጻድቅቍጥቋጥየማስነሣበትዘመንይመጣል፥ይላልእግዚአብሔር፥እርሱምእንደንጉሥይነግሣል፥ይከናወንለታልም፥በምድርምፍርድንናጽድቅንያደርጋል። 6 በዘመኑምይሁዳይድናልእስራኤልምተዘልሎይቀመጣል፥የሚጠራበትምስም።እግዚአብሔርጽድቃችንተብሎነው።
    • Jeremiah 30:9 ለአምላካቸውለእግዚአብሔርምለማስነሣላቸውለንጉሣቸውለዳዊትምይገዛሉእንጂሌሎችአሕዛብእንደገናአይገዙአቸውም።
    • Jeremiah 33:20–22እግዚአብሔርእንዲህይላል።ቀንናሌሊትበወራቱእንዳይሆንየቀንቃልኪዳኔንናየሌሊትቃልኪዳኔንማፍረስብትችሉ፥በዙፋኑላይየሚነግሥልጅእንዳይሆንለትከባሪዬከዳዊትጋር፥ከአገልጋዮቼምከሌዋውያንካህናትጋርያለውቃልኪዳኔደግሞይፈርሳል። 22 የሰማይንሠራዊትመቍጠርየባሕርንምአሸዋመስፈርእንደማይቻል፥እንዲሁየባሪያዬንየዳዊትንዘርናየሚያገለግሉኝንሌዋውያንንአበዛለሁ።
    • Jeremiah 33:25–26እግዚአብሔርእንዲህይላል።የቀንናየሌሊትቃልኪዳኔንየሰማይንናየምድርንምሥርዓትያላጸናሁእንደሆነ፥ 26 እኔምደግሞበአብርሃምናበይስሐቅበያዕቆብምዘርላይገዦችይሆኑዘንድከዘሩእንዳልወስድ፥የያዕቆብንናየባሪያዬንየዳዊትንዘርእጥላለሁ፤ምርኮአቸውንእመልሳለሁና፥እምራቸውማለሁና።
    • Ezekiel 34:23–24በላያቸውምአንድእረኛአቆማለሁእርሱምያሰማራቸዋል፥እርሱምባሪያዬዳዊትነው፤ያሰማራቸዋልእረኛምይሆናቸዋል። 24 እኔምእግዚአብሔርአምላክእሆናቸዋለሁባሪያዬምዳዊትበመካከላቸውአለቃይሆናል፤እኔእግዚአብሔርተናግሬአለሁ።
    • Ezekiel 37:24–25ባሪያዬምዳዊትንጉሥይሆናቸዋል፤ለሁሉምአንድእረኛይሆንላቸዋል፤በፍርዴምይሄዳሉትእዛዜንምይጠብቃሉያደርጓትማል። 25 አባቶቻችሁምበኖሩበትለባሪያዬለያዕቆብበሰጠኋትምድርይኖራሉ፤እነርሱናልጆቻቸውየልጅልጆቻቸውምለዘላለምይኖሩባታል፤ባሪያዬምዳዊትለዘላለምአለቃይሆናቸዋል።
    • Zechariah 9:9አንቺየጽዮንልጅሆይ፥እጅግደስይበልሽ፤አንቺየኢየሩሳሌምልጅሆይ፥እልልበዪ፤እነሆ፥ንጉሥሽጻድቅናአዳኝነው፤ትሑትምሆኖበአህያም፥በአህያይቱግልገልበውርጫይቱላይተቀምጦወደአንቺይመጣል።

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